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NOV 2 "? 1996

The Catholic Encyclopedia

VOLUME SIX Fathers— Gregory

Till'; UKUQUAKY 01'' ST. CiKNEVlKNT'.

I'liOCKSSlUN OF THE CITIZENS OF I'ARIS IN PENITENTIAL C.MlXi, 1 1'Jii ,MAILLOT, Till! I'ANIIIIiON, I'ARIS

THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA

AN INTERNATIONAL WORK OF REFERENCE

ON THE CONSTITUTION, DOCTRINE,

DISCIPLINE, AND HISTORY OF THE

CATHOLIC CHURCH

EDITED BY

CHARLES G. HERBERMANN, Ph.D., LL.D.

EDWARD A. PACE, Ph.D., D.D. CONDE B. PALLEN, Ph.D., LL.D.

THOMAS J. SHAHAN, D.D. JOHN J. WYNNE, S.J.

ASSISTED BY NUMEROUS COLLABORATORS

FIFTEEN VOLUMES AND INDEX VOLUME VI

SPECIAL EDITION

U.VDER THE AUSPICES OF

THE KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS CATHOLIC TRUTH COMMITTEE

mew ^ovk THE ENCYCLOPEDIA PRESS, INC.

Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909 REMY LAFORT, S.T.D.

Imprimatur

4- JOHN CARDINAL FARLEY

ARCHBISHOP OF NEW YORK

Copyrigni, 1909 Bt Robert Appleton Company

Copyright, 1913 By the encyclopedia PRESS, INC.

The articles in this -work have been written specially for The CathoUc Encyclopedia and are protected by eopyria;ht. All rights, includ- ing the right of translation and reproduction, are reserved.

COLLEGE LIBRARY

Contributors to the Sixth Volume

AHERNE, CORNELIUS, Professor of New Tes- tament Exegesis, Rector, St. Joseph's Col,- LEGE, Mill Hill, London: GaLitians, Epistle to the.

ALBERS, P.,S.J., Maastricht, Holland: Gorkum, The Martyrs of.

AlDASY, ANTAL, Ph.D., Archivist of the Li- brary of the National Museum, Budapest: Gran, Archdiocese of.

ALSTON, G. CYPRIAN, O.S.B., Doivnside Abbey, Bath, England: Fontenelle, Abbey of; Font- froide, Abbey of; Gall, Abbey of Saint; Gar- land; Gaudete Sunday; General Chapter; Glebe; Goscelin.

ARENDZEN, J. P., S.T.D., M.A. (Cantab.), Pro- fessor OF Holy Scripture, St. Edmund's College, Ware, England: Gabriel Sionita; Gnosticism.

ASTRAIN, ANTONIO, S.J., Madrid: Francis Xav- ier, Saint.

AVELING, FRANCIS, S.T.D., London: Form; Free-Thinkers.

BARBIERI, REMIGIO GUIDO, Titul.« Bishop OF Theodosiopolis, Vicar Apostolic of Gi- braltar: Gibraltar, Vicariate Apostolic of.

BARNES, ARTHUR STAPYLTON, M.A. (Oxon. AND Cantab.), Cambridge, England: Glabrio, Manius Acilius.

BARRETT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Buckie, Scot- land: Fort Augustus Abbey; Graham, Patrick.

tBARRY, ALBERT, C.SS.R., Limerick, Ireland: Furniss, John.

BENIGNI, UMBERTO, Professor of Ecclesias- tical History, Pont. Collegio Urbano di Propaganda, Rome: Ferentino, Diocese of; Fermo, Archdiocese of; Ferrara, Archdiocese of; Fiesole, Diocese of; Florence, Archdiocese of; Foggia, Diocese of; Foligno, Diocese of; Forli, Diocese of; Fossano, Diocese of; Fossombrone, Diocese of; Frascati, Diocese of; Gaeta, Arch- diocese of; Gallipoli, Diocese of; Galluppi, Pasquale; Galtelli-Nuoro, Diocese of; Genoa, .\rchdiocese of; Gerace, Diocese of; Giberti, Gian Matteo; Gioberti, Vincenzo; Girgenti, Diocese of; Gonzaga, Ercole; Gonzaga, Scipione; Grassis, Paris de; Gravina and Montepeloso, Diocese of.

BERGH, FREDERICK THOMAS, O.S.B., Abbot OF St. Augustine's, Carshalton, Surrey, England: Genuflexion.

t Deceased

BEWERUNGE, H., Professor of Church Music, St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, Dublin: Gregorian Chant.

BIHL, MICHAEL, O.F.M., Lector of Ecclesiasti- cal History, Collegio San Bonaventura, QuARACCHi, Florence: Fraticelli; Friars Minor, Order of; Gerardus Odonis.

BOOTHMAN, C. T., Kingstown, Ireland: Fitz- herbert, Maria Anne; Glanville, Ranulf de.

BOUDINHON, AUGUSTE-MARIE, S.T.D., D.C.L., Director, "Canonists Contemporain", Pro- fessor OF Canon Law, Institut Catholique, Paris: Forgery, Forger; Formularies; Gibert, Jean-Pierre; Glaire, Jean-Baptiste; Glosses, Glossaries, Glossarists.

BRANN, HENRY A.

William Russell.

D.D., New York: Grace,

BRAUN, JOSEPH, S.J., Bellevue, Luxemburg: Gloves, Episcopal.

BRIShIER, LOUIS-RENfi, Professor of Ancient AND Medieval History, University op Cler- mont-Ferrand, Puy-de-D6ime, France: Foul- que de Neuilly; Fregoso, Federigo; Froissart, Jean; Gesta Dei per Francos; Godfrey of Bouil- lon.

BRIAULT, MAURICE, C.S.Sp., Paris: Vicariate Apostolic of.

Gaboon,

BROCK, HENRY M., S.J., Professor of Physics, Holy Cross College, Worcester, Massachu- setts: Ferdinand, Blessed; Feuillet, Louis; Fixlmillner, Placidus; Fontana, Felice; Forster, Arnold; Forster, Thomas Ignatius Maria; Fres- nel, Augustin-Jean; Gerbillon, Jean-Frangois.

BROWN, CHARLES FRANCIS WEMYSS, Loch- TON Castle, Perthshire, Scotland: Gandol- phy, Peter; Gervase, George; Goldwell, Thomas; Gother, John; Gradwell, Robert.

BURKE, EDMUND, B.A., Instructor in Latin, College of the City of New York: Filelfo, Francesco; Forcellini, Egidio; Fust, John.

BURTON, EDWIN, S.T.D., F.S. Hist. See, Vice- President, St. Edmund's College, Ware, England: Fenn, John; Finch, John, Venerable; Fitzalan, Henry; Fitzherbert, Sir Anthony; Fleming, Richard; Fletcher, John; Floyd, John; Formby, Henry; Fowler, John; Gardiner, Stephen; Geoffrey of Dunstable; Geoffrey of Monmouth; Gerard, Archbishop of York; Ger- vase of Canterbury; Gesta Romanorum; Goffe, Stephen; Goss, Alexander; Grant, Thomas; Green, Tljomas Louis,

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE SIXTH VOLUME

BUTLER, RICHARD URBAN, O.S.B., Downside Abbey, Bath, England: Gilbertines, Order of; Gilbert of Sempringham, Saint.

CAMM, BEDE, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Erdington Abbey, Birmingham, England: Feckenham, John de.

CARTER, MARY GILMORE, New York: Gilmore, Patrick Sarsficld.

CASANOVA, GERTRUDE, O.S.B., Stanbrook Abbey, Worcester, England: Gertrude the Great, Saint; Gertrude van der Oosten, Vener- able.

CASARTELLI, L. C, S.T.D., Bishop of Salford, England: Gentili, Aloysius.

CHAPMAN, JOHN, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Prior of St. Thomas's Abbey, Erdington, Birmingham, England: Fathers of the Church; Fei5sler, Joseph; FirmiHan, Bishop of Csesarea; Fulgen- tius, Fabius Claudius Gordianus, Saint; Gauden- tius. Saint; Gennadius I, Saint.

CLEARY, GREGORY, O.F.M., S.T.L., J.U.L., Pro- fessor OF Moral Theology and Canon Law, St. Isidore's College, Rome: Friar.

CLEARY, HENRY W., Editor, "New Zealand Tablet", Ddnedin, New Zealand: Goulburn, Diocese of.

CLUGNET, JOSEPH-LEON-TIBURCE, Litt.L., Paris: Gatianus, Saint; Gerard, Saint, Abbot of Brogne; Gerard, Saint, Bishop of Toul; Goar, Saint.

COFFEY, PETER, S.T.L., Ph.D., Professor of Philosophy, St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, Dublin: Gilbert de la Porr^e; Godfrey of Fon- taines.

COLEMAN, AMBROSE, O.P., M.R.I.A., St. Sav- iour's Priory, Dublin: Felix III, Saint, Pope; Felix of Nola, Saint.

CONNOLLY, ARTHUR THEODORE, B.D., Bos- ton: Fitton, James.

COOREMAN, JOSEPH, S.J., V.G., General Mana- ger OF THE Schools of the Diocese of Galle, Ceylon: Galle, Diocese of.

CORBETT, JOHN,

Psalms.

S.J., New York: Gradual

CORDIER, HENRI, Professor at the School for Oriental Living Languages, Paris: Gaubil, Antoinc.

CRAM, RALPH ADAMS, F.R.G.S., F. Am. Inst. Architects, President, Boston Society of Architects, Boston: Gothic Architecture.

CREUTZBERG, HEINRICH AUGUST, Ph.D., Krefeld, Germany: George the Bearded.

CRIVELLI, CAMILLUS, S.J., Professor of Gen- eral History, Instituto CiENTipico, City of Mexico: Figueroa, Francisco Garcia de la Rosa; G6mara, Francisco L6pcz de.

CUTHBERT, FATHER, O.S.F.C, Crawley, Sus- sex, England: Felix of Cantalice, Saint; Fidelis of Sigmaringen, Saint; Francis of Paula, Saint; Fytch, William Benedict; Gennings, Edmund and John.

D-ALTON, E. A., M.R.I.A., Athenry, Ireland: Fitzpatrick, William John; Fleming, Patrick; Galway and Kilmacduagh, Diocese of.

DEBUCHY, PAUL, S.J., Litt.L., Enghien, Bel- gium: Gagliardi, Achille; Gaudier, Antoine le; Gisbert, Blaise.

DEGERT, ANTOINE, LL.D., Editor, "La Revue de la Gascoigne", Professor of Latin Litera- ture, Institut Catholique, Toulouse: Fene- lon, Frangois de Salignac de la Mothe; Gallican- ism.

DELAMARRE, LOUIS N., Ph.D., Instructor in French, College of the City op New York: I'auriel, Charles-Claude; Florian, Jean-Pierre Claris; Gebhart, Emile; Gilbert, Nicolas-Joseph- Laurent; Giraud de Borneil.

DELANY, JOSEPH, S.T.D., New York: Fear (from moral standpoint); Gluttony; Good Faith.

DE SMEDT, CH., S.J., Brussels: Gamans, Jean.

DEVINE, ARTHUR, C.P., Profe.ssor of Theol- ogy, St. Saviour's Retreat, Broadway, Worcestershire, England: Galjriel Possenti, Blessed.

DEVITT, E. J., S.J., Professor of Psichology, Georgetown University, Washington : George- town University.

DINNEEN, MICHAEL FRANCIS, S.T.D., Pro- fessor OF Moral Theology, St. Mary's Uni- versity, Baltimore: Good, The Highest.

DIONNE, N. E., M.D., LL.D., Librarian to thf Legislature of Quebec: Fr^cliette, Louis- Honord.

DONOVAN, S'TEPHEN M., O.F.M , Washington: Ferber, Nicolaus; Fonseca, Jos(S Ribeiro da; Fonseca Soares, Antonio da; Francis Solanus, Saint; Frassen, Claude; Gaudentius of Brescia.

DOUMIC, RENE, Member of the French Academy, Literary and Dramatic Critic, ''Revue des Deux Mondes", Paris: French Literature.

DRISCOLL, JAMES F., S.l D., New York: Firma- ment; Gog and Magog: Golden Calf.

DRISCOLL, JOHN THOMAS, M.A., S.T.L., Fonda, New York: Fetishism.

D'SA, M.\NOEL F. X., Principal, Antonio de SouzA School, Mazagon, Bombay, India: Gar- cia, Gonsalo, Saint.

DUBRAY, CHARLES A., S.M., S.T.B., Ph. D., Pro- fessor OF Philosophy, Marist College, Wash- ington; Franchi, Ausonio; Gaultier, Aloisius- Edouard-Camille; Gddoyn, Nicolas; G^rando, Joseph-Marie de; Ginoulhiac, Jacques-Marie- Achille; Girard, Jean-Baptiste.

DUNFORD, DAVID, Diocesan Inspector of Schools, Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, Eng- land: Fear (in Canon Law) ; Foundation; Gar- dellini, Aloisio; Funeral Dues; Gavantus, Barto- lommeo.

DUNN, ARCHIBALD JOSEPH, F.S.S., F.R. Hist. Soc, London- Feilding, Rudolph William BasiL

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE SIXTH VOLUME

DUNN, JOSEPH, Ph.D., Profe.ssor of Celtic Lan- guage AND Literature, Catholic University OP America, Washington: Filliucius, Felix.

EDMONDS, COLUMBA, O.S.B., Fort Augustus, Scotland: Gildas, Saint.

ENGELHARDT, ZEPHYRIN, O.F.M., Watson- viLLE, California: Friars Minor in America.

EWING, JOHN GILLESPIE, M.A., San Juan, Porto Rico: Gillespie, Eliza Maria; Gillespie, Neal Henry.

FANNING, WILLIAM H. W., S.J., Professor op Church History and Canon Law, St. Louis University, St. Louis: Filial Church; Forum, Ecclesiastical.

FAVREAU, J. ARTHUR, Secretary, Societe His- torique Franco-A.mericaine, Boston: French Catholics in the United States.

FENLON, JOHN F., S.S., S.T.D., President, St. Austin's College, Brookland, District of Columbia, Professor of Sacred Scripture, St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore: Fouard, Constant; Gosselin, Jean-Edra6-Auguste.

FISCHER, JOSEPH, S.J., Professor op Geog- raphy and History, Stella Matutina Col- lege, Feldkirch, Austria: Fillastre, Guillaume.

FUREY, JOHN, U.S.N., Retired, Brooklyn, New York: Grasse, Frangois-Joseph-Paul de.

GEMELLI, AGOSTINO, O.F.M., M.D.C.M., Hon- orary Professor op Histology, Professor op Pastoral Medicine, Director, "Rivlsta di FiLosoFiA Neo-scolastica", Milan: Fortunate of Brescia.

GERARD, JOHN, S.J., F.L.S., London: Galileo.

Galilei,

GEUDENS, FRANCIS MARTIN, O.Pr.em., Abbot Titular of Barlings, Corpus Christi Priory, Manchester, England: Floreffe, Abbey of; Frigolet, Abbey of; GofBne, Leonard.

GIETMANN, GERARD, S.J., Teacher of Classical

L.INGUAliES AND ESTHETICS, St. IgNATIUS COL- LEGE, Valkenburg, Holland: Fuhrich, Joseph; GMberti, Lorenzo di Clone; Girardon, Frangois.

GIGOT, FRANCIS E.,S.T.D., Professor of Sacred Scripture, St. Joseph's Seminaky', Dunwoodie, New York: Gabbatha; Gad; Gamaliel; Ged- eon; Generation; Gentiles; Glosses, Scriptural; Gospel and Gospels.

GILLET, LOUIS, Paris: Ferrari, Gaudenzio; Feti, Domenico; Flandrin, Jean-Hippolyte; Fouquet, Jehan; Francia (Francesco Raibolini) ; Fromen- tin, Eugene; Ghirlandajo (Domenico di Toma.sso Bigordi); Giotto di Bondone; Giulio Romano; Gossaert, Jan.

FITA Y COLOMER, FIDEL, S.J., Member of the GILMARTIN, THOM^^S P., S.T.D., Vice-Presi- RoYAL Academy of History, Madrid: Funchal, dent, St. Patrick s College, Maynooth, Dub-

Diocese of; Granada, Archdiocese of. "n: Good Friday.

FORD, JEREMIAH D. M., M.A., Ph.D., Professor OF French and Spanish Languages, Harvard University', Cambridge, Massachusetts: Fer- reira, Antonio; Filicaja, Vincenzo da; Folengo, Teofilo; Gallego, Juan Nicasio; Garcilasso de la Vega; Giraldi, Giovanni Battista; Giusti, Giu- seppe; Goldoni, Carlo; Gomes De Ainorim, Fran- cisco; Gonzalo de Berceo; Gozzi, Carlo.

FORTESCUE, ADRIAN, S.T.D., Ph.D., Letch- worth, Hertfordshire, England: Gennadius II, Patriarch of Constantinople; Gennadius of Marseilles; George Hamartolus; Georgius Syn- cellus; Gloria in Excelsis Deo; Gospel in the Liturgy; Gradual; Greece; Greek Rites.

FOURNET, PIERRE-AUGUSTE, S.S., M.A., Pro- fessor OF History', College de Montreal, Montreal: Gal, Saint; Galland, Antoine; Gaume, Jean-Joseph; Gousset, Thomas-Marie- Joseph.

FOX, JAMES J., S.T.D., Professor of Philosophy, St. Thomas's College, Washington: Glory; Good.

FOX, WILLIAM, B.S., M.E., Associate Professor of Physics, College of the City of New York: Faye, Herve-Auguste-Etienne-Albans; Fizeau, Armand-Hippolyte-Louis; Foucault, Jean-Bert- rand-L^on; Fraunhofer, Joseph von; Galvani, Luigi.

FUENTES, VENTURA, B.A., M.D., Instructor, College of the City of New York: Ferndndez dePalencia, Diego; Feyjooy Montenegro, Benito Jeronimo; Figueroa, Francisco de; Florez, En- rique; Garcilasso de !a Vega (The Inca).

GOYAU, GEORGES, Associate Editor, "Revue DBS Deux Mondes", Paris: Fesch, Joseph; Fleury, Andr^-Hercule; France; Francis I, King of France; Fr^jus, Diocese of; Gallia Christiana; Gap, Diocese of.

GRATTAN-FLOOD,WILLIAMH.,M.R.I.A.,Mus.D., Rosemount, Enniscorthy', Ireland: Ferns, Diocese of; Finan, Saint; Finnian of Moville, Saint; Fintan, Saints; Fothad, Saint; Gerald, Saint; Giordani, Tommaso; Giovanelli, Ruggi- ero; Gobban Saer.

GREANEY, JOHN J., S.T.L., Pittsburg, Pennsyl- vania: Fitzralph, Richard.

GUfiRIN, CHARLES, Prefect Apostolic, Ghar- daia, Africa: Ghardaia, Prefecture Apostolic of.

HAGEN, JOHN G., S.J., Vatican Observatory, Rome: Gassendi, Pierre.

HAMMER, BONAVENTURE, O.F.M., Lafayette, Indiana: Fort Wayne, Diocese of.

HANDLEY, marie LOUISE, New York: Gasser von Valhorn, Joseph.

HARTIG, OTTO, Assistant Librarian op the Royal Library, Munich: Gama, Vasco da; Geography and the Church; Glarean, Henry.

HASSETT, MAURICE M., S.T.D., Harrisburg, Pennsy'LVANIa: Fish, Symbolism of the; Fos- sors; Graffiti.

HE.\LY, JOHN, S.T.D., LL.D., M.R.I. A., .•Arch- bishop of "Tcam, Senator of the Royal Uni- versity op Ireland: Glendalough, School of.

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE SIXTH VOLUME

HEALY, PATRICK J., S.T.D., Assistant Pro- fessor OF Church History, Catholic Univer- sity of America, Washington: Faustus of Riez; Felicissimus; Firmicus Maternus; Flavia Domi- tilla; Fulgentius Ferrandus.

HECKMANN, FERDINAND, O.F.M., Teacher of Latin and Greek, Franciscan Monastery, Washington; Ferdinand III, Saint.

HERBERMANN, CHARLES G., Ph.D., LL.D., Litt. D., K.S.G., Professor of Latin Language and Literature, College of the City of New York: Frank, Michael Sigismund.

HIND, GEORGE ELPHEGE, O.S.B., Glamorgan- shire, Wales: Faversham Abbey; Folkestone Abbey; Fountains Abbey; Furness Abbey.

HOEBER, KARL, Ph.D., Editor, "Volkszei- tung" and "Akademische Monatsblatter", Cologne: Galerius, Valerius Maximianus; Gal- lienus, Publius Licinius Egnatius; Graz, Uni- versity of.

HOFFMANN, ALEXIUS, O.S.B., St. John's Col- lege, Collegeville, Minnesota: Feder, Jo- hann Michael; Feilmoser, Andreas Benedict; Feneberg, John Michael Nathanael.

HOLWECK, FREDERICK G., St. Louis, Missouri: Feasts, Ecclesiastical.

HUDLESTON, GILBERT ROGER, O.S.B., Down- side Abbey, Bath, England: Glastonbury Abbey; Gregory I, Saint, Pope.

JOYCE, GEORGE HAYWARD, S.J., M.A. (Oxon.), Professor of Logic, Stonvhurst College, Blackburn, England: Fundamental Articles.

KAMPERS, FRANZ, Ph.D., Professor of Medie- val and Modern Church History, Univer.sity OF Breslau: Frederick I; Frederick II; Ger- many, from tlie beginning to 1556; Godfrey of Viterbo.

KEILEY, J.ARVIS, M.A., Grantwood, New Jer- sey': Georgia.

KELLY, BLANCHE M., New York: Ferrer, Ra- fael; Gerona, Diocese of; Granada, University of; Grassel, Lorenz.

KELLY, LEO A., Ph.B., Rochester, New York: Frankfort, Council of.

KIRSCH, JOHANN PETER, S.T.D., Domestic Prelate, Professor of Pathology' and Chris- tian Arch-eology, University' of Fribourg, Switzerland: Felicitas, Saint; Felicitas and Perpetua, Saints; Feli.x I, Saint, Pope; Felix II, Pope; Felix IV, Pope; Felix V, Antipope; Flaccilla, ^lia; Fleury, Claude; Florentina, Saint; Florus; Formosus, Pope; Forty Martyrs; Four Crowned Martyrs; Fribourg, University of; Fridolin, Saint; Fulcran, Saint; Fulgentius, Saint; Fiinfkirchen, Diocese of; Funk, Franz Xaver von; Galletti, Pietro Luigi; Gaudiosus, Bishop of Tarazona; Germanus I, Saint; Gobe- linus, Person; Gorres, Guido; Gorres, Johann Joseph; Gregory X, Blessed, Pope.

KITTELL, FERDINAND, LORETTO, Pennsyl- vania: Gallitzin, Demetrius Augustine.

HULL, ERNEST R., S.J., Editor, "The Exam- KLAAR, KARL, Government Archivist, iNf^h- iner", Bombay-, India: Goa, Archdiocese of. bruck: Ferdinand II.

HUNT, LEIGH, Professor of Art, College op the City of New York: Gaillard, Claude- Ferdinand; Giocondo, Fra Giovanni ; Giorgione; Goya y Lucientes, Francisco Jos^ de.

KURTH, GODEFROID, Director, Belgian His- torical Institute, Rome: Frankenberg, Johann Heinricli; Franks, The; Fredegarius; Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de.

HUNT, THOMAS JOHN, Dublin: Goyaz, Diocese LADEUZE, PAULIN, S.T.D., Rector, University of. of Louvain: Goossens, Pierre-Lambert.

HUNTER-BLAIR, Sir D. O., Bart., O.S.B., M.A., LAFLAMME, J. K. L., Editor-in-Chief, "L'Action Oxford: Foreman, Andrew; Free Church of Scot- Sociale", Quebec: French Catholics in the

land; Gillis, James. United States.

HUONDER, ANTHONY, S.J., Editor, "Katho-

LISCHE MisSIONEn", BeLLEVUE, LUXEMBURG:

Fridelli, Xaver Ehrenbert; Fritz, Samuel.

HYDE, DOUGLAS, LL.D., Litt.D., M.R.I.A., Frenchpark, Co. Roscommon, Ireland: Four Masters, Annals of the.

ISENBERG, ANTHONY FRANCIS, Editor, "Morning Star", New Orleans, Louisiana: Gayarr^, Charles Etienne Arthur.

LALANDE, LOUIS, S.J., Montreal, Canada: Felix, C^lestin-Joseph; Flechier, Esprit; Fray- ssinous, Denis de; Freppel, Charles-EmUe.

LAUCHERT, FRIEDRICH, Ph.D., Aachen: Feb- ronianism; Geissel, Johannes von; Gerhoh of Reichersberg; Granderath, Theodor.

L.AURENTIUS, JOSEPH, S.J., Professor op Canon Law, St. Ignatius College, Valken- burg, Holland: Fiscal Procurator; Fiscal of the Holy Office.

JAROSSEAU, ANDRfi, O.M. Cap., Titular Bishop LAVIGNE, DAVID E., Editor, "La Tribune", - -• - Woonsocket, Rhode Island: French Catholics

in the United States.

of Soatra, Vicar Apostolic of Galla, Harar, Abyssinia: Galla, Vicariate Apostolic of.

JARRETT, BEDE, O.P., B.A, (Oxon.), S.T.L., St. Dominic's Priory, London: Feudalism.

JENNER, henry, F.S.A., Late op the British Museum, London: Galilean Rite, The.

JEROME, MOTHER MARY, Doyle, New York: Felician Sisters.

LEBRUN, CHARLES, C.J.M., S.T.D., Superior, Holy Heart Seminary, Halifax, Nova Scotia: Good Sliepherd, Our Lady of Charity of the.

LECLERCQ, HENRI, O.S.B., London: Ferriferes, Abbey of; Fire, Liturgical Use of; Flavigny, Abbey of; Gams, Pius Bonifacius; Gerbert, Martin; Goar, Jacques; Grace at Meals; Gran- colas, Jean.

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE SIXTH VOLUME

LEJAY, PAUL, Fellow op the University of France, Professor, Catholic University of Paris: Fortunatus, Venantius Honorius Cle- mentianus; Caret, Jean; Garland, John; Gaul, Christian.

LENHART, JOHN M., O.M.Cap., Lector op Philos- ophy, St. Fidelis Monastery, Victoria, Kansas: Forbes, John.

LENNOX, PATRICK JOSEPH, B.A., Professor OF English Language and Literature, Catho- lic University of America, W,\shington: Gower, John.

LINDSAY, LIONEL ST. GEORGE, B.Sc, Ph.D., Editor-in-Chief, "La Nouvelle Fr.ance", Quebec: Frontenac, Louis de Buade; Garneau, Franijois-Xavier; Gamier, Charles; Gaspe, Philippe Aubert de; Goupil, Rene; Gravier, Jacques.

LINS, JOSEPH, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germ.\ny: Frankfort-on-the-Main; Freiburg (City, Arch- diocese, University); Fulda, Diocese of; Ger- many, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern; Gesellen- vereine; Gnesen-Posen, Archdiocese of.

LOUGHLIN, JAMES F., S.T.D., Philadelphia: Friends, Society of; Gelasius II, Pope; Gregory VIII, Pope; Gregory VIII, Antipope.

MAAS, A. J., S.J., Rector, Woodstock College, Maryland: Filioque; Forer, Laurenz; Gene- alogy (in the Bible); Genealogy of Christ; Gib- bons, John; Gibbons, Richard.

MacAULEY, PATRICK J., Belp.\st, Ireland: Gagarin, Ivan Sergejewitch; GiSord, William; Gonnelieu, Jerome de.

MacCAFFREY, J.\MES, S.T.L., Ph.D., St. Pat- rick's College, Maynooth, Dublin: Fleming, Thomas; French, Nicholas; Giraldus Cam- brensis.

MacERLEAN, ANDREW A., New York: Fin- barr. Saint; Garzon, Diocese of; Genevieve, Saint; George Pisides; Germain, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre; Germain, Saint, Bishop of Paris; Giffard, Bonaventure; Gilbert, Sir John Thomas; Glaber, Raoul; Goajira, Vicariate Apostolic of; Goodman, Godfrey.

McMAHON, ARTHUR L., O.P., St. Dominic's Priory, S.^n Francisco: Ferre, Vincent; Gali- lee; Gravina, Dominic.

M.A.CPHERSON, EWAN, New York: Garcfa Mor- eno, Gabriel.

MAERE, R., S.T.D., Professor op Christian Archeology, University of Louvain: Garrucci, Raffaele.

MAES, CAMILLUS P., S.T.D., Bishop op Coving- ton, Kentucky: Flaget, Benedict Joseph; For- bin-Janson, Charles - Auguste - Marie - Joseph, Comte de.

MAGNIER, JOHN, C.SS.R., Rome; Gerard Majella, Saint.

MAHER, MICHAEL, S.J., Litt.D., M.A. (London), Director of Studies and Professor op Peda- gogics, Stonyhurst College, Blackburn, England: Free Will.

MANN, HORACE K., Headjiaster, St. Cuth- bert's Grammar School, Newc.\stle-on-Tyne, England: Gregory II, Saint, Pope; Gregory III, Saint, Pope; Gregory IV, Pope; Gregory V, Pope; Gregory VI, Pope; Gregory VI, Anti- pope.

MARIQUE, PIERRE JOSEPH, Instructor in French, College op the City op New York: Feval, Paul-Henri-Corentin; Flanders; Fleuriot, Zenaide-Marie-Anne.

MEDIN, JOSEPH, Great Falls, Montana: Great Falls, Diocese of.

MEEHAN, THOMAS F., New York: Fitz-Simons, Thomas; Foresters, Catholic Orders of; Foster, John Gray; Galveston, Diocese of; Garesche, Julius Peter; Gaston, William; Geraldton, Dio- cese of; Grand Rapids, Diocese of; Green Bay, Diocese of.

MEIER, GABRIEL, O.S.B., Einsiedeln, Switzer- land: Fructuosus of Braga, Saint; Fructuosus of Tarragona, Saint.

MEISTERMANN, BARNABAS, O.F.M., Lector, Convent of S. Salvator, Jerusalem: Geth- semani.

MERSHMAN, FR.\NCIS, O.S.B., S.T.D., Professor OF Moral Theology, Canon Law, and Liturgy, St. John's University, CoLLEGE\aLLE, Minne- sota: Felix and Adauctus, Saints; Feria; Fla- bellum; Funeral Pall; Galla, Saint; Gallicanus, Saints; Gamier, Jean; Genesius (1. Genesius, a comedian at Rome; 2. Genesius of Aries; 3. Genesius, Bishop oi Clermont; 4. Genesius, Count of Clermont; 5. Genesius, Archbishop of Lyons); Gervasius and Protasius, Saints; Gott- schalk. Saint.

MOONEY, JAMES, United States Ethnologist, Smithsoni^vn Institution, Washington: Flat- head Indians; Ghost Dance.

MORICE, A.G., O.M.I., St. Boniface, Manitoba, Canada: Garin, Andre.

MUELLER, ULRICH F., C.PP.S., Professor of Philosophy, St. Charles Borromeo Seminary, Carthagena, Ohio: Gaspare del Bufalo, Blessed.

MULCAHY, CORNELIUS, Professor of Rhetoric, St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, Dublin: Fergus, Saint: Fiacc, Saint; Fiacre, Saint; Fur- sey. Saint; Germaine Cousin, Saint.

MURPHY, JOHN F. X., S.J., Woodstock College, M.uiyland: Faustinus and Jovita, Saints; Filli- ucci, Vincenzo; Fonseca, Pedro da; Franzelin, Johann Baptist; Frowin, Blessed; Gelasius I, Saint, Pope; Giles, Saint; Gordianus and Epi- machus, Saints; Gorgonius, Saint.

MYERS, EDW.\RD, M.A. (Cant.\b.), Professor op Dogmatic Theology and Patrology, St. Ed- mund's College, W.\ke, England: Gelasius of Cyzicus; George of Trebizond; Giffard, God- frey; Giffard, William.

OBRECHT, EDMOND, O.C.R., Gethsemani Abbey, Kentucky: Feuillants; Florians, The; Geramb, Ferdinand de; Gervaise, Fran^ois-Armand; Gethsemani, Abbey of Our Lady of.

O'BRIEN, JOHN JOSEPH, Ph.D., College of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota: Gibault, Pierre.

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE SIXTH VOLUME

OESTREICn, THOMAS, O.S.B., Peofessor of RANDOLPPI, BARTHOLOMEW, CM., M.A.,

Church History and Sacred Scripture, Mary- Teacher of Philosophy and Church History,

HELP Abbey, Belmont, North Carolina: St. John's College, Brooklytst, New York:

Florilegia; Gregory VII, Saint, Pope. Francis Regis Clet, Blessed.

O'lvANE, MICHAEL M., O.P., Ph.D., S.T.L., Lim- REIINHOLD, GREGOR, Freiburg im Breisgau,

erick, Ireland: Felix of Valois, Saint. Germany': Gorz, Archdiocese of.

OLIGER, LIVARIUS, O.F.M., Lector of Church History, Collegio S. Antonio, Rome: Feuar- dent, Frangois; Francis, Rule of Saint.

OTT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Ph.D., Professor of the History' of Philosophy, St. John's Univer- sity-, Collegeville, Minnesota: Forster, Fro- benius; Fulbert of Chartres; Fiirstenberg, Franz Friedrich Wilhelm von; Gebhard of Constance; Gemblours; Genebrartl, Gilbert; Gerberon, Gabriel; Gertrude of Aldenberg, Blessed; Gertrude of Hackeborn; Gertrude of Nivelles, Saint; Gil de Albornoz, Alvarez Carillo; Gil of Santarem, Blessed; Gottschalk Qf Orbais; Gott^ weig. Abbey of ; Gregory IX, Pope; Gregory XI, Pope.

OTTEN, JOSEPH, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania: Gounod, Charles-Frangois.

PAOLI, FRANCESCO, S.J., Rome: Frances of Rome, Saint; Francis Caracciolo, Saint; Giu- seppe Maria Tommasi, Blessed.

P.\RKINSON, HENRY, S.T.D., Ph.D., Rector, Oscott College, Birmingham, England: Fitter, Daniel.

PERNIN, RAPHAEL, O.S.F.S., Albano-Laziale, It.^^ly: Francis de Sales, iSaint.

REMY, ARTHUR F. J., M.A., Ph.D., Adjunct Pro- fessor of Germanic Philology-, Columbia University-, New York: Feuchtersleben, Ernst von; Flodoard; Friedrich von Hansen; German Literature; Gottfried von Strasburg; Grail, The Holy.

RICIvABY, JOHN, S.J., Professor of Ethics, Stony'hurst College, Blackburn, England: Fortitude.

RITCHIE, JOHN CANON, Diocesan Secret.vry, Glasgow: Glasgow, Archdiocese of.

ROBINSON, PASCHAL, O.F.M., Washington: Fioretti di S. Francesco d'Assisi; Franciscan Order; Francis of Assisi, Saint.

ROCK, P. M. J., Louis\iLLE, Kentucky-: Golden Rose.

ROY, J. EDMOND, Litt.D., F.R.S.C, Officer of the French Academy-, Ottawa, Canada: Fer- land, Jean-Baptiste-Antoine.

RUDGE, FLORENCE MARIE, M.A., Youngs- town, Ohio: Faunt, Lawrence Arthur: Ferndn- dez, Antonio; Fernandez, Juan; Finglow, John, Venerable; Flavian, Saint; Fontbonne, Jeanne; Good Samaritan, Sisters of the.

PHILLIMORE, JOHN SWINNERTON, M.A. RYAN, JOHN A., S.T.D., Professor of Moral (OxoN.), Professor op Humanities, Univer- Theology, St. Paul Seminary', St. Paul,

siTY of Glasgow: Glasgow, University of. Minnesota: Foundling Asylums.

PLASSMAN, THOMAS, O.F.M., Ph.D., S.T.D., Rome: Francis of Fabriano, Blessed; Galatino, Pietro Colonna.

POHLE, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Ph.D., J.C.L., Professor OF Dogmatic Theology, University of Bres- LAu: Grace; Grace, Controversies on.

POLLEN, JOHN HUNGERFORD, S.J., London: Fitzherbert, Thomas; Fitzsimon, Henry; For- teseue, Adrian, Blessed; Freeman, William, Venerable; Frideswide, Saint; Garlick, Nicholas, Venerable; Garnet, Henry; Garnet, Thomas, Venerable; Gerard, John; Gerard, Myles; Ger- ard, Richard; German Gardiner, Blessed; Good- man, John, Venerable; Gordon Riots; Green, Hugh, Venerable.

PONCELET, ALBERT, S.J., Brussels: Gall, Saint.

POOLE, THOMAS H., New York: Fontana, Carlo; Galilei, Alessandro; Gau, Franz Christian ; GauUi, Giovanni Battista.

POPE, HUGH, O.P., Hawkesyard Priory, Ruge- ley, England: Gabriel, Archangel.

POTAMIAN, BROTHER, F.S.C., D.Sc. (London), Professor of Physics, Manhattan College, New York: Gordon, Andrew.

QUINN, STANLEY J., New York: Fremin, James; SCHEID, N., S.J., Stella Matutina College, Feld- Garnier, Julien; Gilbert Islands, Vicariate Apos- kirch, Austria: Geiler von Kaysersberg,

tolic of. Johann.

SALEMBIER, LOUIS, S.T.D., Professor of Church History-, University op Lille: Gerson, Jean le Charlier de.

SALSMANS, JOSEPH, S.J., Professor op Moral Theology and Canon Law, Jesuit College, Louvain: Genicot, Edward; Gobat, George; Gonzalez de Santalla, Thyrsus.

SAUER, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Editor, "Rundschau", Professor of Theology', University' of Frei- burg, Germany: Ferstel, Heinrich Freiherr von; Fontana, Domenico.

SAUVAGE, G. M., C.S.C, S.T.D., Ph.D., Professor OF Dogmatic Theology, Holy' Cross College, Washington: Fideism; Gerdil, Hyacinthe-Sig- ismond; Gratry, August e-Joseph-Alphonse.

SCANNELL, THOMAS B. CANON, S.T.D., Editor, "Catholic Dictionary", Weybridge, Eng- land: Frequent Communion; Gift, Supernatural; Gordian, Roman Emperors; Gratian, Roman Emperor.

SCHAEFER, FRANCIS J., S.T.D., Ph.D., Pro- fessor OF Church History', St. Paul Semi- nary, St. Paul, Minnesota: Gassner, Johann Joseph; Geoffrey of Clairvaux; Geoffrey of Vendome.

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE SIXTH VOLUME

SCHIRP, FRANCIS M., Ph.D., Instructor, Loyola School, New York: Germans in the United States.

SCHLAGER, HEINRICH PATRICIUS, Harr,e- VELD, LicHTENVOORDE, HOLLAND: Feller, Fran- gois-Xavier de; Ficker, Julius; Gallandi, Andrea; Gallitzin, Adele .4malie; Gervase of Tilbury; Gfrorer, August Friedrich; Giannone, Pietro; Grandidier, Philippe- Andri^; Gratius, Ortwin.

SCHROEDER, JOSEPH, O.P., Immaculate Con- ception College, Washington: Francis of Vittoria; Franck, Kaspar; Galura, Beruhard; Gazzaniga, Pietro Maria; Gonet, Jean Baptiste; Gratz, Peter Aloys.

SCHUMACHER, MATTHEW, C.S.C, Ph.D., S.T.B., Director of Studies, University of Notre Dajie, Indiana: Ficino, Marsilio.

SCULLY, VINCENT JOSEPH, C.R.L., St. Ives, Cornwall, England: Gerhard of Ziltphen.

SHIPMAN, ANDREW J., M.A., LL.M., New Y'ork: Glagolitic; Greek Catholics in the United States; Greek Orthodox Church in America.

SLATER, T., S.J., St. Beuno's College, St. Asaph, Wales: Fraud; Gambling.

SLOANE, THOMAS O'CONOR, M.A., E.M., Ph.D., New York: Fuchs, Johann Nepomuk von.

SMITH, HENRY IGNATIUS, O.P., Washington: Funic, Bartolommeo.

SMITH, JOSEPH H., S.J., Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, New York: GaUifet, Joseph de.

SMITH, SYDNEY F., S.J., London: Gallwey, Peter.

SOLLIER, JOSEPH FRANCIS, S.M., S.T.D., San Fr.'^.ncisco: Gerbet, Olympe-Philippe; Godet des Marais.

SORTAIS, GASTON, S.J., Assistant Editor, "Etudes", Paris: Gozzoli.

SOUVAY, CHARLES L., CM., LL.B., S.T.D., Ph.D., Professor of Holt Scripture and He- brew, Kenbick Seminary, St. Louis: First- Born; First-Fruits; Fringes; Geography, Bibli- cal.

SPAHN, MARTIN, Ph.D., Professor of Modern History. Universitv of Strasburg: Germany (1556 to 1S71 ; The New Cerman Empire).

SPILLANE, EDW.\RD P., S.J., Associate Editor, "America", New York: Finotti, Joseph; Fisher, Philip.

STEELE, FRANCESCA M., Stroud. Gloucester- shire, England: Flete, William; Gabriel, Brothers of Saint.

STUART, JANET, R.S.H., Superior Vicar, Con- vent of the Sacred He.vrt, Roeh.oipton, London: Galitzin, Elizabeth; Goetz, Marie Josephine; Gramont, Eugenie de.

STUD.ART, GUILHERME, BARAO DE, CearX, Brazil: Fortaleza, Diocese of.

SUAU, PIERRE, S.J., Tournai, Belgium: Francis Borgia, Saint.

THURSTON, HERBERT, S.J., London: Fools, Feast of; Forty Hours' Devotion; FractioPanis; George, Saint.

TIERNEY, JOHN J., M.A., S.T.D., Professor op Scripture and Semitic Studies, Mt. St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Maryland: Flagella- tion.

TOKE, LESLIE ALEXANDER ST. LAURENCE, B.A., Stratton-on-the-Fosse, near Bath, England: Flagellants: Fonte-Avellana; Godric I; Godric II.

TONER, PATRICK J., S.T.D., Professor of Dog- matic Theology, St. Patrick's College, May- NooTH, Dublin: Gahan, William; God.

TURNER, WILLIAM, S.T.D., Bishop of Gallo- way, Scotland: Galloway, Diocese of.

TURNER, WILLL\M, B.A., S.T.D., Professor of Logic and the History of Philosophy', Cath- olic University' of Ajierica, W.\shington: Fredegis of Tours; Gerard of Cremona.

URQUHART, FRANCIS FORTESCUE, M.A., Lec- turer IN Modern History, Balliol College, Oxford: Florence of Worcester; Gilbert Foliot.

VAILH^, SIMEON, A.A., Member of the Russian Arch-eological Institute of Constantinople, Professor of Sacred Scripture and History' at the Theological Seminary at Kadi-Keui, Constantinople: Flavias; Flaviopolis; Fogar- as. Archdiocese of: Furni; Fussola; Gabala; Gadara; Gangra; Gargara; Gaza; Gerasa; Ger- manicia; Germanicopolis; Gennia; Gerrha; Gezireh; Gibail and Batrun; Gindarus; Girba; Gordos; Gortyna; Gratianopolis; Greek Church.

VAN CLEEF, AUGUSTUS, New Y'ork: Gegen- bauer, Josef Anton von.

VAN DEN GHEYN, GABRIEL, President of the Historical and Arch.eological Society op Ghent, Secretary of the Provincial Com- mission of Monuments, Inspector of Con- vents, Ghent: Ghent, Diocese of.

VAN DER ESSEN, LfiON, Litt.D., Ph.D., Col- lege DU Pape, Louvain, Belgium: Florence, Council of; Foillan, Saint; Gery, Saint; Ghis- lain, Saint; Gondulphus of Metz; Gondulphus of Tongres; Gondulphus, Saint.

VAN HOVE, A., J.C.D., Professor of Church His- tory and Canon Law, University of Louvain: Ferraris, Lucius; Giraldi, LTbaldo; Gratian, Johannes; Gravina, Giovanni Vincenzo.

VAN ORTROY, FRANCIS, S.J., Brussels: Fran- cis de Geronimo, Saint.

VEALE, JAMES, S.T.D., M.\ndarin, Florida: Florida.

VELLA, ANTONIO, Gozo, Malta: Gozo, Diocese of.

VONIER, ANSCAR, O.S.B., Ph.D., Abbot of Buck- fast, Buckfastleigh, England: Fleury, Ab- bey of.

WALSH, REGINALD, O.P., S.T.D., Rome: Friends of God.

WARD, Mgr. BERNARD, President, St. Ed- mund's College, Ware, England: Flanagan, Thomas.

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE SIXTH VOLUME

WARREN, KATE MARY, Lecturer in English WILHELM, BALTHASAR, S.J., Stella Matutina

Literature under University of London at College, Feldkirch, Austria: Galien, Joseph. Westfield College, Hampstead, London:

Forrest, WOliam; FuUerton, Lady Georgiana WILLIAMSON, GEORGE CHARLES, Litt.D.,

Charlotte. London: Flemael, Bertholet; Foppa, Ambrogio;

Franceschini, Marc 'Antonio; Franco, Giovanni

WEBER, N. A., S.M., S.T.L., Professor of Church Battista; Gaddi, Antonio, Giovanni and Taddeo;

History, Marist College, Washington: Fel- Gallait, Louis; Genga, Girolamo; Gentile da

biger, Johann Ignaz von. Fabriano; Giordano, Luca.

WEBSTER, RA1.THUND, O.S.B., M.A. (Oxon.), WINTERSGILL, H. G., New York: Flathers, Matt- Do wnside Abbey, Bath, England: Fonte- hew, Venerable; Fredoli, Berenger. vrault, Order and Abbey of; Grandmont, Abbey

and Order of. WITTMANN, PIUS, Ph.D., Reichsaechiveat,

Munich: Finland, Grand Duchy of; Greenland.

WELCH, SIDNEY READ, S.T.D., Ph.D., J.P.,

Editor, "Catholic Magazine for South ZIMMERMAN, BENEDICT, O.D.C., St. Luke's

Africa", Cape Town: Good Hope, Eastern Priory, Wincanton, Somerset, England:

Vicariate of the Cape of; Good Hope, Western Frances d'Amboise, Blessed; Garcfa, Anne;

Vicariate of the Cape of. Gratian, Jerome.

!di

Tables of Abbreviations

The following tables and notes are intended to guide readers of The Catholic Encyclopedia in interpreting those abbreviations, signs, or technical phrases which, for economy of space, will be most fre- quently used in the work. For more general information see the article Abbreviations, Ecclesiastical.

I. General Abbreviations.

a article.

ad an at the year (Lat. ad annum).

an., ann the year, the years (Lat. annus,

anni).

ap in (Lat. apud).

art article.

.4.ssyr Assyrian.

A. S Anglo-Saxon.

A. V Authorized Version (i.e. tr. of tlie

Bible authorized for use in the Anglican Church the so-called "King James", or "Protestant Bible").

b bom.

Bk Book.

Bl Blessed.

C, c about (Lat. arm); canon; chap-

ter; compagnie.

can canon.

cap chapter (Lat. caput used only

in Latin context).

cf compare (Lat. confer).

cod codex.

col column.

concl conclusion.

const., constit. . . .Lat. constitutio.

cura by the industry of.

d died.

diet dictionary (Fr. dictionnaire).

disp Lat. disputatio.

diss Lat. dissertatio.

dist Lat. distinctio.

D. V Douay Version.

ed., edit edited, edition, editor.

Ep., Epp letter, letters (Lat. epistola).

Fr French.

gen genus.

Gr Greek.

H. E., Hist. Eccl. .Ecclesiastical History.

Heb., Hebr Hebrew.

ib., ibid in the same place (Lat. ibidem).

Id. the same person, or author (Lat.

idem).

inf below (Lat. infra).

It Italian.

1. c, loc. cit at the place quoted (Lat. loco

citato) .

Lat Latin.

lat latitude.

lib book (Lat. liber).

long longitude.

Mon Lat. Monumenta.

MS., MSS manuscript, manuscripts.

n., no number.

N. T New Testament.

Nat National.

Old Fr., O. Fr. . . .Old French.

op. cit in the work quoted (Lat. opere

citato) .

Ord Order.

O. T Old Testament.

p., pp page, pages, or (in Latin ref- erences) pars (part).

par paragraph.

passim in various places.

pt part.

Q Quarterly (a periodical), e.g.

"Church Quarterly".

Q., QQ., qusest. . . .question, questions (Lat. qucestio).

q. V which [title] see (Lat. quod vide)

Rev Review (a periodical).

R. S Rolls Series. ,

R. V Revised Version.

S., SS Lat. Sanctus, Sancti, "Saint",

"Saints" used in this Ency^ eloped ia only in Latin context.

Sept Septuagint.

Sess Session.

Skt Sanskrit.

Sp Spanish.

sq., sqq following page, or pages (Lat.

sequens).

St., Sts Saint, Saints.

sup Above (Lat. supra).

s. v Under the corresponding title

(Lat. sub voce).

tom volume (Lat. tomus).

TABLES OF ABBREVXA.TIONS.

tr. translation or translated. By it- self it means "English transla- tion", or "translated into Eng- lish by". Where a translation is into any other language, the language is stated.

tr. , tract tractate.

V see (Lat. vide).

Van Venerable.

Vol Volume.

II. Abbreviations of Titles.

4cta SS Acta Sanctorum (BoUandists).

Ann. pont. cath Battandier, Aran uaire pontifical

catholique.

Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath.Gillow, Bibliographical Diction- ary of the English Catholics.

Diet. Christ. Antiq. .. Smith and Cheetham (ed.). Dictionary of Christian An- tiquities.

Diet. Christ. Biog. . . Smith and Wace (ed.), Diction- ary of Christian Biography.

Diet, d'arch. chr^t. . .Cabrol (ed.), Dictionnaire d'ar- cheologie chritienne et de litur- gie.

Diet, de th^ol. cath. . Vacant and Mangenot (ed.), Dictionnaire de thiologie catholique.

Diet. Nat. Biog Stephen (ed.), Dictionary of

National Biography.

Hast., Diet, of the

Bible Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of

the Bible.

Kirchenlex Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexi-

con.

P. G Migne (ed.), Patres Greed.

P. L Migne (ed.), Patres Latini.

Vig. , Diet, de la Bible. Vigouroux (ed. ) , Dictionnaire de la Bible.

Note I. Large Roman numerals standing alone indicate volxunea. Small Roman numerals standing alone indicate chapters. Arabic numerals standing alone indicate pages. In other cases the divisions are explicitly stated. Thus " Rashdall, Universities of Europe. I, ix" refers the reader to the ninth chapter of the first volume of that work; "I, p. ix" would indicate the ninth page of the preface of the same volume.

Note II. Where St. Thomas (Aquinas) is cited without the name of any particular work the reference is always to "Summa Theologica" (not to "Summa Philosophise"). The divisions of the "Summa Theol." are indicated by a system which may best be understood by the following example: " I-II, Q. vi. a. 7, ad 2 um " refers the reader to the seventh article of the sixth question in the ^rs( part of the second part, in the response to the second objection.

Note III. The abbreviations employed for the various books of the Bible are obvious. Ecclesiasticus is indicated by Ecclus., to distinguish it from Kcclesiastes (Eccles.). It should also be noted that I and II Kings in D. V. correspond to I and II Samuel in A. V. ; and I and II Par. to I and II Chronicles. Where, in the spelling of a proper name, there is a marked difference between the D. V. and the A. V., the form found in the latter is added, in parentbese*.

Full Page Illustrations in Volume VI

Frontispiece in Colour pj^ob

Fenelon Portrait by Joseph Vivien 36

Cathedral, Fcrrara 46

Votivkirche, Vienna 50

Cathedral, Fiesole 70

Pope Leo XII Carried in Procession in St. Peter's Vernet 88

Florence 104

The Cathedral of Florence 112

Church of San Mercuriale, Forli 136

Fountains Abbey, Ripon, England 160

France 178

The Virgin with Sts. Francis Borgia and Stanislaus Kostka Deferrari 216

St. Francis of Assisi 220

Assisi 228

Mary's Journey through the Hill Country Fiihrich 312

Ponte Vecchio, Florence 332

Fagade, St. John Lateran, Rome 342

Germany 492

The Castelfranco Altar-Piece Giorgione 564

Giotto Frescoes in Santa Croce, Florence 568

English Gothic Interiors 672

English Gothic Exteriors 680

Michael Pakcologus as One of the Magi Gozzoli 688

The Acropolis, Athens 740

Maps

France : 188

Palestine in the Old-Testament Period 428

Palestine in the Time of Christ 432

Fra Mauro's Map of the World (1459) 450

Germany 514

THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA

F

Fathers of the Church. The word Father is used in the New Testament to mean a teacher of spiri- tual things, by whose means tiie soul of man is born again into the likeness of Christ: "For if you have ten thousand instructors in Christ, yet not many fathers. For in Christ Jesus, by the gospel, I have be- gotten you. Wherefore I beseech you, be ye followers of me, as I also am of Christ" (I Cor., iv, 15, IG; cf. Gal., iv, 19). The first teachers of Christianity seem to be collectively spoken of as "the Fathers" (II Peter, iii, 4). Thus .St. Irena;us defines that a teacher is a father, and a disciple is a son (iv, 41,2), and so says Clement of Alexandria (Strom., I, i, 1). A bishop is emphatically a "father in Christ", both be- cause it was he, in early times, who baptized all his flock, and because he is the chief teacher of his church. But he is also regarded by the early Fathers, such as Hegesippus, Iiena'us, and TertuUian, as the recipient of the tradition of his predecessors in the see, and con- sequently as the witness and representative of the faith of his Church before Catholicity and the world. Hence the expression " the Fathers ' ' comes naturally to be applied to the holy bishops of a preceding age, whether of the last generation or further back, since they are the parents at whose knee the Church of to- day was taught her belief. It is also applicable in an eminent way to bishops sitting in council, " the Fathers of Niccea", " the Fathers of Trent". Thus Fathers have learnt from Fathers, and in the last resort from the Apostles, who are sometimes called Fathers in this sense: " They are your Fathers", says St. Leo, of the Princes of the Apostles, speaking to the Romans; St. Hilary of Aries calls them sartcti patres; Clement of Alexandria says that his teachers, from Greece, Ionia, Coele-Syria, Egypt, the Orient, Assyria, Palestine, re- spectively, had handed on to him the tradition of blessed teaching from Peter, and James, and John, and Paul, receiving it "as son from father".

It follows that, as our own Fathers are the predeces- sors who have taught us, so the Fathers of the whole Church are especially the earlier teachers, who in- structed her in the teaching of the Apostles, during her infancy and first growth. It is difficult to define the first age of the Church, or the age of the Fathers. It is a common habit to stop the study of the early Church at the Council of Chalcedon in 451. "The Fathers" must undoubtedly include, in the West, St. Gregory the Great (d. 004), and in the East, St. John Damascene (d. about 754). It is frequently said that St. Bernard (d. 115.3) was the last of the Fathers, and Migne's " Patrologia Latina" extends to Innocent III, halting only on the verge of the thirteenth century, while his " Patrologia Gr^ca" goes as far as the Coun- cil of Florence (143S-9). These limits are evidently too wide. It will be best to consider that the great merit of St. Bernard as a writer lies in his resemblance in style and matter to the greatest among the Fathers, in spite of the difference of period. St. Isidore of Seville (d. C.3G) and the Venerable Bede (d. 735) are VI.— 1

to be classed among the Fathers, but they may be said to have been born out of due time, as St. Theodore the Studite was in the East.

The Appeal to the Fathers. Thus the use of the term Fathers has been continuous, yet it could not at first be employed in precisely the modern sense of Fathers of the Church. In early days the expression referred to writers who were then quite recent. It is still applied to those writers who are to us the an- cients, but no longer in the same way to writers who are now recent. Appeals to the Fathers are a sub- division of appeals to tradition. In the first half of the second century begin the appeals to the sub-Apos- tolic age: Papias appeals to the presbyters, and through them to the Apostles. Half a century later St. Irena;us supplements this method by an appeal to the tradition handed down in every Church by the suc- cession of its bishops (Adv. Hier., Ill, i-Lii), and Ter- tuUian clinches this argument by the observation that as all the Churches agree, their tradition is secure, for they could not all have strayed by chance into the same error (Prcescr., xxviii). The appeal is thus to Churches andtheirbishops, none but bishops being the authoritative exponents of the doctrine of their Churches. As late as 341 the bishops of the Dedica- tion Council